Stuart B. Levy, The Challenge of Antibiotic Resistance, 278 Scientific American 46, need pinpoint cite (Mar. 1998), available at http://www.sciam.com/1998/0398issue/0398levy.html [hereinafter Levy, The Challenge].
The farmer, having no rules or guidelines but industry standards by which to abide, will often treat animals like machines in order to maximize output and profit. Such an approach, however, requires an arsenal of drugs to ward off the inevitable infections and health problems that animals suffer when reared under stressful conditions. Antibiotics prevent the spread of infectious disease among herds kept in close confinement. . . . The use of subtherapeutic doses of antibiotics makes factory farm practices feasible. In one trade journal, a hog farmer remarked: One reason large confinement systems have worked so well is because of antibiotics. Without the antibiotics it would be hard to have these larger systems and crowd the pigs as we do in some cases.
Id. at 41213 (citations omitted).
[T]he pipeline of new antibacterial drugs is essentially empty, the result of a prolonged lack of research interest and funding. A survey of large US and Japanese pharmaceutical companies . . . found that half of the companies either reduced or phased out their antibacterial programs in the last decade . . . .