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[Pages 779-806]
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Introduction
I.  Fee Shifting in the United States
    A.  The American Rule
    B.  Policy Objectives Considered in Fee Shifting
II.  CERCLA Generally
    A.  History and Goals
    B.  Defining the Process and Standards
    C.  CERCLA’s Response Authority
        1.  Government’s Response Authority
        2.  Private Party’s Response Authority
        3.  CERCLA’s Broad Liability
        4.  Response Costs and Amount Recoverable
IV.  Caselaw on Fee Shifting Under CERCLA
    A.  Key Tronic
        1.  Facts and Procedural Background
        2.  The Supreme Court in Key Tronic
    B.  The Ninth Circuit’s Decision in United States v. Chapman
        1.  Facts and Procedural Background
        2.  The Ninth Circuit in Chapman
V. The Ninth Circuit Court Correctly Interpreted CERCLA and Key Tronic to Allow for Recovery of Governmental Attorneys’ Fees
    A.  Statutory Authority for Fee Shifting Under CERCLA
        1.  Express Statutory Language of CERCLA
        2.  Remedial Purpose Canon of Construction
        3.  Remedial Purpose and Legislative Intent in Enacting CERCLA
    B.  Public Policy
Conclusion