* Editor-in-Chief, Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 1999–2000. I am grateful to Aviam Soifer for his guidance and insight.
1 See National Park Service, Devils Tower National Monument, Final Climbing Management Plan (visited Nov. 5, 1998), <http://www.nps.gov/planning/deto/detotoc.html> [hereinafter “FCMP”], Purpose and Need for the Plan, Introduction; FCMP, Finding of No Significant Impact [hereinafter “FONSI”], parts G-18, G-20. According to John Dorst, Professor of American Studies at the University of Wyoming: “Devils Tower is a massive stump of striated, volcanic rock, perhaps most familiar as the landing site for those childlike aliens who descend from heaven in the techno-sublime mother ship of Steven Spielberg’s Close Encounters of the Third Kind.John Dorst, Looking West 8 (1999).
2 See Mary Alice Gunderson, Devils Tower: Stories in Stone 130 (1988); FCMP, supra note 1, Purpose and Need for the Plan, Current Climbing Use and Management; FCMP, supra note 1, Graphs and Tables, Registered Climbers at Devils Tower from 1989–1994.
3 See FCMP, supra note 1, Graphs and Tables, Registered Climbers at Devils Tower from 1989–1994.
4 See FCMP, supra note 1, Environmental Consequences, Natural Resources.
5 See FCMP, supra note 1, Action Elements of the Final Climbing Management Plan, A Voluntary Closure to Climbing in June; FCMP, supra note 1, Environmental Consequences, Cultural Resources.
6 See FONSI, supra note 1, part E-1.
7 See id., part A.
8 See FCMP, supra note 1, Purpose and Need for the Plan, Legal and Administrative Considerations.
9 See generally FCMP, supra note 1.
10 See generally 2 F. Supp. 2d 1448 (D. Wyo. 1998). On appeal, the Tenth Circuit entirely sidestepped the Constitutional issue by holding that the plaintiffs lacked standing to challenge the NPS’s FCMP:

The named individual recreational climbers whose climbing activities have been undeterred by the FCMP have established no injury in fact and therefore do not have standing. Further . . . commercial climbing guide Andy Petefish did not substantiate his claim of economic injury as a result of the voluntary closure. . . . Even if other Bear Lodge members have elected not to climb in June, that decision is one of several choices available under the plan and is not an injury conferring standing. . . . In short, the Climbers “claim that the Constitution has been violated, [but] they claim nothing else. They fail to identify any personal injury suffered by them as a consequence of the alleged Constitutional error.”

Bear Lodge Multiple Use Ass’n v. Babbitt, 1999 WL 261624, *7 (10th Cir. 1999) (citation omitted).
11 See infra text accompanying notes 66–98.
12 James Madison’s Proposed First Amendment in The Complete Bill of Rights: The Drafts, Debates, Sources, and Origins 1 (Neil Cogan ed., 1997).
13 Thomas Jefferson’s Draft of the Virginia Constitution in 1 The Papers of Thomas Jefferson 239 (Julian Boyd ed., 1950).
14 For purposes of this Note, ideas of “full and equal” and “full and free” religious freedoms are considered under the umbrella of “fullness” or simply “full” religious freedom.
15 See Lyng v. Northwest Indian Cemetery Protective Ass’n, et al., 485 U.S. 439 (1988); Wilson v. Block, 708 F.2d 735 (D.C. Cir. 1983); Badoni v. Higginson, 638 F.2d 172 (10th Cir. 1980), aff’g 455 F. Supp. 2d 141 (1977); Sequoyah v. Tennessee Valley Auth., 620 F.2d 1159 (6th Cir. 1980), aff’g 480 F. Supp. 608 (1979); Inupiat Community of the Arctic Slope v. United States, 548 F. Supp. 182 (D. Alaska 1982); Crow v. Gullet, 541 F. Supp. 785 (D. S.D. 1982); Manybeads v. United States, 730 F. Supp. 1515 (D. Ariz. 1989); Havasupai Tribe v. United States, 752 F. Supp. 1471 (D. Ariz. 1990), aff’d, sub nom. Havasupai Tribe v. Robertson, 943 F.2d 32 (9th Cir. 1991); Attakai v. United States, 746 F. Supp. 1395 (D. Ariz. 1990).
16 485 U.S. 439 (1988).
17 See generally Bear Lodge, 2 F. Supp. 2d 1448.
18 See FCMP, supra note 1, Purpose and Need for the Plan, Introduction; FONSI, supra note 1, parts G-18, G-20.
19 FCMP, supra note 1, Purpose and Need for the Plan, Objectives.
20 See FCMP, supra note 1, Action Elements of the Final Climbing Management Plan.
21 See FONSI, supra note 1, passim.
22 See FCMP, supra note 1, Purpose and Need for the Plan, Current Climbing Use and Management; FCMP, supra note 1, Action Elements of the Final Climbing Management Plan, A Voluntary Closure to Climbing; FCMP, supra note 1, Action Elements of the Final Climbing Management Plan, Raptor Nest Protection.
23 See FCMP, supra note 1, Purpose and Need for the Plan, Current Climbing Use and Management; FCMP, supra note 1, Purpose and Need for the Plan, Climbing History; FCMP, supra note 1, Environmental Consequences, Cultural Resources, Historic Resources.
24 See FCMP, supra note 1, Purpose and Need for the Plan, Climbing History.
25 See id.
26 See id.
27 See id.; FCMP, supra note 1, Environmental Consequences, Cultural Resources.
28 See FCMP, supra note 1, Purpose and Need for the Plan, Climbing History.
29 See FCMP, supra note 1, Purpose and Need for the Plan, Current Climbing Use and Management; FCMP, supra note 1, Action Elements of the Final Climbing Management Plan, Raptor Nest Protection.
30 See FCMP, supra note 1, Purpose and Need for the Plan, Current Climbing Use and Management; FCMP, supra note 1, Action Elements of the Final Climbing Management Plan, Raptor Nest Protection.
31 16 U.S.C.  703–712 (1994).
32 16 U.S.C.  715 (1994).
33 See 36 C.F.R.  2.2(a)(2) (1987).
34 FCMP, supra note 1, Action Elements of the Final Climbing Management Plan, Raptor Nest Protection.
35 See FCMP, supra note 1, Action Elements of the Final Climbing Management Plan, A Voluntary Closure to Climbing in June.
36 See id.
37 See id.
38 See id.
39 See Bear Lodge Multiple Use Ass’n v. Babbitt, 2 F. Supp. 2d 1448, 1450 (D. Wyo. 1998).
40 See id. at 1451–52.
41 See id.
42 See id.
43 See id.
44 Telephone Interview with Chas Cartwright, Superintendent of Devils Tower National Monument (Nov. 4, 1998).
45 Id. Compliance has been roughly 85%, meaning the number of people climbing in June since the voluntary ban was implemented in 1996 is 85% less than the number of people who climbed in June 1995.
46 See Bear Lodge, 2 F. Supp. 2d at 1448.
47 See id. at 1456–57.
48 Id. at 1452.
49 See cases cited supra note 15.
50 See Bear Lodge, 2 F. Supp. 2d at 1452.
51 “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. . . .” U.S. Const. amend. I.
52 See, e.g., Jesse H. Choper, Securing Religious Liberty: Principles for Judicial Interpretation of the Religion Clauses (1995); Bette Novit Evans, Interpreting the Free Exercise of Religion: The Consititution and American Pluralism (1997); Merril D. Peterson and Robert C. Vaughan, The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (1990); Equal Separation: Understanding the Religion Clauses of the First Amendment (Paul J. Weber ed., 1990); Aviam Soifer, The Fullness of Time, in Religion and the Law: Obligation of Citizenship and Demands of Faith (Nancy Rosenblum ed. forthcoming 2000); Peter Westen, The Empty Idea of Equality, 95 Harv. L. Rev. 537 (1982); David C. Williams and Susan H. Williams, Volitionalism and Religious Liberty, 76 Cornell L. Rev. 769 (1991); John Witte, Jr., The Essential Rights and Liberties of Religion in the American Constitutional Experiment, 71 Notre Dame L. Rev. 371 (1996).
53 See, e.g., Russel Lawrence Barsh, The Illusion of Religious Freedom for Indigenous Americans, 65 Or. L. Rev. 363, 369–72 (1986); Celia Byler, Free Access or Free Exercise?: A Choice Between Mineral Development and American Indian Sacred Site Preservation on Public Lands, 22 Conn. L. Rev. 397 (1990); Raymond Cross and Elizabeth Brenneman, Devils Tower at the Crossroads: The National Park Service and the Preservation of Native American Cultural Resources in the 21st Century, 18 Pub. Land & Resources L. Rev. 5 (1997); Rebekah J. French, Free Exercise of Religion on the Public Lands, 11 Pub. Land L. Rev. 197 (1990); Rayanne J. Griffin, Sacred Site Protection Against a Backdrop of Religious Intolerance, 31 Tulsa L.J. 395 (1995); Ann M. Hooker, American Indian Sacred Sites on Federal Public Lands: Resolving Conflicts Between Religious Use and Multiple Use at El Malpais National Monument, 19 Am. Indian L. Rev. 133 (1994); Dean B. Suagee, Tribal Voices in Historic Preservation: Sacred Landscapes, Cross-Cultural Bridges, and Common Ground, 21 Vt. L. Rev. 145 (1996); Fred Unmack, Equality Under the First Amendment: Protecting Native American Religious Practices on Public Lands, 8 Pub. Land L. Rev. 165 (1987); Anastasia P. Winslow, Sacred Standards: Honoring the Establishment Clause in Protecting Native American Sacred Sites, 38 Ariz. L. Rev. 1291 (1996).
54 See cases cited supra note 15.
55 See infra text accompanying notes 68–100.
56 See cases cited supra note 15.
57 See id. Sadly, this pattern will be unremarkable to anyone with an elementary sense of American history.
58 See id.
59 See generally Sequoyah v. Tennessee Valley Auth., 620 F.2d 1159 (6th Cir. 1980).
60 See generally Badoni v. Higginson, 638 F.2d 172 (10th Cir. 1980).
61 See generally Lyng v. Northwest Indian Protective Ass’n., 485 U.S. 439 (1988).
62 See, e.g., Lyng, 485 U.S. 439; Badoni, 638 F.2d 172; Sequoyah, 620 F.2d 1159.
63 See, e.g., Lyng, 485 U.S. 439; Badoni, 638 F.2d 172; Sequoyah, 620 F.2d 1159.
64 Lyng, 485 U.S. at 452. See Badoni, 638 F.2d at 179.
65 See, e.g., Lyng, 485 U.S. at 452; Badoni, 638 F.2d at 179.
66 Badoni, 638 F.2d at 179 (quoting Judge Hand’s opinion in Otten v. Baltimore and O. R. Co., 205 F.2d 58, 61 (2d Cir. 1953)).
67 Bear Lodge Multiple Use Ass’n. v. Babbitt, 2 F. Supp. 2d 1448, 1452 (D. Wyo. 1998).
68 See Soifer, supra note 52, at 17; Witte, supra note 52, at 403–05.
69 Witte, supra note 52, at 389 (citations omitted).
70 The genesis of thought is a murky inquiry at best, and there is ample evidence to suggest that Madison and Jefferson borrowed extensively from Roger Williams. For a more nuanced discussion of the intellectual relationship between Williams, Madison, and Jefferson and the generation of “fullness,” see Soifer, supra note 52, at 7–16.
71 See Soifer, supra note 52, at 9.
72 Boyd, supra note 13 (emphasis added).
73 One of the bedrooms at Monticello is named “Mr. Madison’s room” as a testament to the amount of time Madison spent at Jefferson’s estate. See Robert F. Tedeschi, Jr., The U.S. Constitution and Fascinating Facts About It 8 (6th ed. 1997).
74 William C. Rives, 1 History of the Life and Times of James Madison 141–42 (1970) (emphasis added).
75 Cogan, supra note 12, at 1 (emphasis added).
76 “Full and equal” language appeared in other contexts, however. The 1866 Civil Rights Act stated in the first paragraph: “Citizens of every race and color . . . shall have the same right . . . to full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of person and property as is enjoyed by white citizens” Civil Rights Act, 1866, ch. 31, 14 Stat. 27–30 (emphasis added). The 1875 Civil Rights Act contains similar language: “All persons . . . shall be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of accommodations, advantages, facilities, and privileges of inns, public conveyances on land or water, theaters, and other places of public amusement.” Civil Rights Act, 1875, ch. 114, 18 Stat. 335 (emphasis added). More recently, the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990 asserted as its general rule: “No individual shall be discriminated against on the basis of disability in the full and equal enjoyment of the goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, or accommodations of any place of public accommodation.” Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990, Pub. L. No. 101–336,  302(a), 104 Stat. 355 (1990)(emphasis added).
77 See Michael McConnell, The Origins and Historical Understanding of the Free Exercise of Religion, 103 Harv. L. Rev. 1409, 1482 (1991); Soifer, supra note 52, at 15.
78 See, e.g., Soifer, supra note 52, at 36–37; Westen, supra note 52, at 596.
79 Westen, supra note 52, at 596.
80 Soifer, supra note 52 at 17.
81 Id.; Westen, supra note 52 at 596.
82 See Soifer, supra note 52, at 17; Westen, supra note 52, at 596.
83 See Soifer, supra note 52, at 17; Westen, supra note 52, at 596.
84 It is not my position that ensuring fullness of the free exercise guarantee necessarily trumps a competing showing of a compelling interest. No constitutional right is so absolute. Where the government offers a substantial compelling interest, the right to full and free exercise of one’s religion must give way in the manner of other constitutionally guaranteed rights.
85 See cases cited supra note 15.
86 See, e.g., Choper, supra note 52, at 97–100; Evans, supra note 52, at 210; Weber, supra note 52, at 61.
87 See, e.g., Choper, supra note 52, at 97–100; Evans, supra note 52, at 210; Weber, supra note 52, at 61.
88 See, e.g., Choper, supra note 52, at 97–100; Evans, supra note 52, at 210; Weber, supra note 52, at 61.
89 See James Madison, Memorial and Remonstrance Against Religious Assessments, reprinted in 8 The Papers of James Madison 298 (Robert A. Rutland & William M.E. Rachal eds., 1973).
90 See id.
91 Id.
92 See Witte, supra note 52, at 401 (citing Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Rev. Samuel Miller (1808), reprinted in 11 The Writings of Thomas Jefferson 428–29 (1904)).
93 Witte, supra note 52, at 401 (citing Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Rev. Samuel Miller (1808), reprinted in 11 The Writings of Thomas Jefferson 428–29 (1904)).
94 See, e.g., Choper, supra note 52, at 97–100; Evans, supra note 52, at 210; Weber, supra note 52, at 61; Madison, supra note 89, at 298.
95 Version first rejected by the Senate, then reconsidered and passed by the Senate on Sept. 3, 1789. 1 Journal of the First Session of the Senate 70 (1802), as cited in Witte, supra note 52, at 402.
96 Version rejected by the Senate on Sept. 3, 1789. Id. at 117.
97 See Witte, supra note 52, at 403.
98 Id. at 404.
99 See Badoni v. Higginson, 638 F.2d 172, 179 (10th Cir. 1980) (quoting Judge Hand’s opinion in Otten v. Baltimore & O. R. Co., 205 F.2d 58, 61 (2d Cir. 1953)); see generally Soifer, supra note 52.
100 See, e.g., Lyng v. Northwest Indian Cemetery Protective Ass’n., 485 U.S. 439 (1988); Badoni, 638 F.2d 172 (10th Cir. 1980).
101 42 U.S.C.  1996 (1988).
102 See Hooker, supra note 53, at 137.
103 Id. at 133, 137; 124 Cong. Rec. 21,444, 21,445 (1978).
104 Barsh, supra note 53, at 369–72.
105 See cases cited supra note 15.
106 See supra text accompanying note 100.
107 See Hooker, supra note 53, at 137.
108 See cases cited supra note 15; see also Hooker, supra note 100, at 137–38.
109 Sequoyah v. Tennessee Valley Auth., 620 F.2d 1159 (6th Cir. 1980), aff’g 480 F. Supp. 608 (1979).
110 See Tennessee Valley Auth. v. Hill, 437 U.S. 153 (1978).
111 See infra text accompanying notes 133–75.
112 See generally Hill, 437 U.S. 153 (1978).
113 See id.
114 See id.
115 See Sequoyah v. Tennessee Valley Auth., 480 F. Supp. 608, 610 (E.D. Tenn. 1979). For a more thorough discussion and analysis of the ESA-TVA controversy, see Zygmunt J.B. Plater, Et Al., Environmental Law and Policy: Nature Law and Society 672–86 (2d ed. 1998).
116 See Sequoyah, 480 F. Supp. at 610.
117 See id. at 610–11.
118 See id.
119 Id. at 611.
120 See id. at 612.
121 See Sequoyah, 480 F. Supp. at 611–12.
122 Id. at 611.
123 Id. at 612.
124 Id.
125 See id.
126 See Sequoyah, 480 F. Supp. at 612.
127 See id.
128 See Sequoyah v. Tennessee Valley Auth., 620 F.2d 1159, 1163–65 (6th Cir. 1980).
129 Id.
130 See id. Although insulting, this centrality inquiry—premised on a subjective evaluation of another’s religious convictions—appeared in other sacred site cases until Justice O’Connor effectively rejected it in Lyng. See Lyng, 485 U.S. at 449.
131 Sequoyah, 620 F.2d at 1165 (Merritt, J., dissenting).
132 See, e.g., Wilson v. Block, 708 F.2d 735 (D.C. Cir. 1983); Badoni v. Higginson, 638 F.2d 172 (10th Cir. 1980).
133 See Badoni v. Higginson, 455 F. Supp. 641, 643 (D. Utah 1977).
134 See id.
135 See id.
136 See id.
137 See id. at 644–45.
138 See Badoni, 455 F. Supp. at 645–46.
139 See Badoni v. Higginson, 638 F.2d 172, 176 (10th Cir. 1980).
140 Id. at 177.
141 Id.
142 Id.
143 Id.
144 See Badoni, 638 F.2d at 177–78.
145 Id.
146 Id. at 178.
147 See Badoni v. Higginson, 455 F. Supp. 641, 644–45 (D. Utah 1977).
148 See Badoni, 638 F.2d at 176.
149 See id. at 178.
150 Id.
151 See id.
152 See supra text accompanying notes 66–99.
153 See id.
154 See id.
155 See Badoni, 638 F.2d at 178–79. This move set the stage for future sacred site decisions, especially Bear Lodge. See Bear Lodge Multiple Use Ass’n v. Babbitt, 2 F. Supp. 2d 1448 (D. Wyo. 1998).
156 Badoni, 638 F.2d at 178–79.
157 Id. at 179 (quoting School Dist. of Abbington v. Schempp, 374 U.S. 203, 222 (1963)). Although the two-pronged purpose and effect test set forth in Abbington resembles both the Lemon and O’Connor tests, it is worth noting that in Bear Lodge the district court specifically applied only the Lemon and O’Connor tests. See infra text accompanying notes 223–39.
158 Badoni, 638 F.2d at 179.
159 See generally Badoni, 638 F.2d 172; Sequoyah v. Tennessee Valley Auth., 620 F.2d 1159 (6th Cir. 1980), aff’g 480 F. Supp. 608 (1979).
160 Crow v. Gullet, 541 F. Supp. 785 (D.S.D. 1982), aff’d 706 F.2d 856 (8th Cir. 1983).
161 Id. at 790.
162 Id. at 791.
163 See id. at 791–92.
164 See id. at 792–93.
165 Inupiat Community of the Arctic Slope v. United States, 548 F. Supp. 182 (D. Ala. 1982), aff’d 746 F.2d 570 (9th Cir. 1984).
166 See id. at 188–89.
167 See id. at 189.
168 Id.
169 Wilson v. Block, 708 F.2d 735 (D.C. Cir. 1983).
170 See id. at 740.
171 See id. at 742–46.
172 Id. at 740.
173 See id. at 742.
174 Wilson, 708 F.2d at 744.
175 The Wilson court explicitly “declined to follow those cases [Crow, Badoni, Sequoyah] which have placed primary reliance upon the government’s property interest and which have held, apparently, that the Free Exercise Clause can never supersede the government’s ownership rights and duties of public management.” Id. at 744 n.5.
176 485 U.S. 439 (1988).
177 See infra text accompanying notes 190–201.
178 Northwest Indian Cemetery Protective Ass’n v. Peterson, 565 F. Supp. 586 (N.D. Cal. 1983), aff’d 795 F.2d 688 (9th Cir. 1986).
179 Lyng, 485 U.S. at 442.
180 See Northwest Indian, 565 F. Supp. at 591.
181 See id.
182 See generally Badoni v. Higginson, 638 F.2d 172 (10th Cir. 1980), aff’g 455 F. Supp. 141 (1977); Sequoyah v. Tennessee Valley Auth., 620 F.2d 1159 (6th Cir. 1980), aff’g 480 F. Supp. 608 (1979).
183 See generally Badoni, 638 F.2d 172; Sequoyah, 620 F.2d 1159.
184 See generally Badoni, 638 F.2d 172; Sequoyah, 620 F.2d 1159.
185 See generally Badoni, 638 F.2d 172; Sequoyah, 620 F.2d 1159.
186 See generally Badoni, 638 F.2d 172; Sequoyah, 620 F.2d 1159.
187 See Northwest Indian Cemetery Protective Ass’n v. Peterson 565 F. Supp. 589, 591 (N.D. Cal. 1983).
188 See id.
189 See id.
190 See Lyng v. Northwest Indian Cemetery Protective Ass’n, 485 U.S. 439, 449–50 (1988). See also supra text accompanying notes 66–75.
191 See Lyng, 485 U.S. at 449.
192 Id. at 472 (Brennan, J. dissenting).
193 See id. at 450–51.
194 See id. at 447, 450.
195 Id. at 449.
196 See Lyng, 485 U.S. at 450.
197 Id. at 451.
198 Id. at 452.
199 Id.
200 Id. at 453.
201 Lyng, 485 U.S. at 452.
202 Id. at 477 (Brennan, J., dissenting).
203 Id. at 459.
204 Id. at 468–69.
205 See id.
206 Lyng, 485 U.S. at 467.
207 Id. at 467–68.
208 Id. at 472 (Brennan, J., dissenting).
209 See Havasupai Tribe v. United States, 752 F. Supp. 1471 (D. Ariz. 1990), aff’d, sub nom. Havasupai Tribe v. Robertson, 943 F.2d 32 (9th Cir. 1991); Attakai v. United States, 746 F. Supp. 1395 (D. Ariz. 1990); Manybeads v. United States, 730 F. Supp. 1515 (D. Ariz. 1989).
210 Manybeads, 730 F. Supp. 1515.
211 Id. at 1517–18.
212 See 746 F. Supp. at 1395.
213 Id. at 1403.
214 Id. at 1403–04.
215 752 F. Supp. 1471, 1476 (D. Ariz. 1990); aff’d, sub nom, Havasupai Tribe v. Robertson, 943 F.2d 32 (9th Cir. 1991).
216 See id. at 1485.
217 Id.
218 Id. at 1486 (quoting Lyng v. Northwest Indian Cemetary Protective Ass’n, 485 U.S. 439, 453 (1988)).
219 Id. (quoting Lyng 485 U.S. at 453).
220 See cases cited supra note 15; see also Hooker, supra note 53, at 137–38.
221 See cases cited supra note 15; see also Hooker, supra note 100, at 137–38.
222 See cases cited supra note 15.
223 See Bear Lodge Multiple Use Ass’n v. Babbitt, 2 F. Supp. 2d 1448, 1451 (D. Wyo. 1998).
224 See supra text accompanying notes 86–100.
225 See Bear Lodge, 2 F. Supp. 2d at 1450–52.
226 See id. at 1453–54.
227 Id. at 1454 (quoting Lemon v. Kurtzman, 403 U.S. 602, 612–13 (1971)).
228 Id.
229 Bear Lodge, 2 F. Supp. 2d at 1454.
230 Id. (quoting Corporation of the Presiding Bishop of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints v. Amos, 483 U.S. 327, 335 (1987)).
231 Id. at 1455.
232 Id.
233 Id. (quoting Badoni v. Higginson, 638 F.2d 172, 179 (10th Cir. 1980)).
234 Bear Lodge, 2 F. Supp. 2d at 1455.
235 Id. at 1456.
236 See id.
237 See id. at 1456–57.
238 See id. at 1452.