Journal Contents

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[Pages 75-122]

I.  Adverse Environmental Effects of Salmon Fish Farms
    A.  Solid Waste and Effluent Pollution
        1.  Oxygen Depletion in Surrounding Waters
        2.  Harm to Benthic Ecosystems
        3.  Toxic Algae Blooms
    B.  Chemical Pollution
    C.  Biological Pollution
II.  Aquaculture Alternatives for Reducing Pollution
    A.  Alterations to Aquaculture Feed
    B.  Polyculture
    C.  Reducing Use of Chemicals
    D.  Reducing Biological Pollution
III.  The Clean Water Act
    A.  Sources Requiring NPDES Permits
        1.  Point and Nonpoint Sources
        2.  “Pollutant”
        3.  “Added”
    B.  NPDES Permits
        1.  Effluent Limitations
        2.  Permit Terms
IV.  Different States’ Treatment of Fish Farms
    A.  Variations Between States
    B.  Variations Within a State
V.  Effluent Limitations for Fish Farms
    A.  Draft Proposed Effluent Limitations for Fish Farms
    B.  European Examples of Effluent Limitations
VI.  CWA Regulation of Fish Farm Effluents
    A.  The EPA Should Revise Its Standards for Determining Which Fish Farms Constitute Point Sources
    B.  The EPA Should Draft Effluent Limitations for the Aquaculture Industry
        1.  Legal Arguments in Support of Drafting Effluent Limitations
              a.  The CWA Applies to Salmon Fish Farms
              b.  Congressional Intent and the CWA
              c.  The EPA Has Already Promulgated Effluent Limitations for the Seafood Processing Industry
        2.  Policy Arguments in Support of Drafting Effluent Limitations
              a.  Environmental Benefits
              b.  Benefits for the Aquaculture Industry
    C.  Possible Components of Effluent Limitations for Salmon Fish Farms
        1.  Control Options for the Salmon Fish Farm Industry
        2.  Effluent Limitations for BOD and Suspended Solids
        3.  Effluent Limitations for Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Settleable Solids
        4.  Effluent Limitations for Chemicals
              5.  Effluent Limitations for Escaped Fish