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Theorizing Philanthropy

center on wealth and philanthropy

"Giving and Getting: Philanthropy as a Social Relation."
Susan A. Ostrander and Paul G. Schervish. In Critical Issues in American Philanthropy: Strengthening Theory and Practice, edited by Jon Van Til. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1990. 67-98. n of that flow and base over the three categories of (a) self (self and spouse), (b) family (family and heirs), and (c) public expenditures (tax and charity). In the final section, we discuss the practical implications of this method and measurement for encouraging the application of wealth holder's wealth to charitable giving. Most important in this regard is for fundraisers, estate planners, and other financial advisors to assist wealth holders in (1) personally determining a satisfying self-definition of discretionary finances and (2) assisting wealth holders to formulate a values-based mission statement that enables them to determine what part of their finances they will devote to which categories of expenditures for themselves, their heirs, and society.
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"In Verdant Pastures: The Centrality of Voluntary Association for the Prominence of Philanthropy."
Paul G. Schervish. In Papers in Honor of Brian O'Connell, edited by Elizabeth Boris. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Forthcoming In my commentary on this paper, I will attempt to do three things based on the analysis John Havens and I are conducting of the same biennial IS/Gallup Survey examined by Hodgkinson, Carson, and Knauft. While our conceptual focus is on the factors leading to both giving and volunteering, our empirical analysis focuses exclusively on the factors that lead to giving.
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"Philanthropy."
Paul G. Schervish. Vol. 1 of Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion, edited by Robert Wuthnow. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Inc., 1998: 600-603. First, I define philanthropy as a social relation and distinguish it from commercial and political relations. Second, I discuss the virtue of care and the sentiment of identification as fundamental principles of philanthropy. Third, I argue that philanthropy is better understood as a dialectical unity of love of self and love of neighbor rather than as a dualistic opposition between selflessness and selfishness.
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"Social Participation and Charitable Giving: A Multivariate Analysis."
Paul G. Schervish and John J. Havens. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 8, no. 3 (1997): 235-260. (Republished here by kind permission of Voluntas.) This paper develops and empirically tests a causal model of the determinants of individual charitable giving. Although our analysis is in reference to charitable giving, the model also appears directly applicable, at least as a starting point, for research on volunteering. This paper reports on the researchers' continuing efforts to develop and test a multivariate causal model of the social, demographic, economic, and motivational determinants of individual charitable giving.
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"Social Participation and Charitable Giving Revisited: Replication of a Multivariate Analysis."
Paul G. Schervish, Platon E. Coutsoukis, and John J. Havens. October 20, 1998.
Two years ago, we empirically examined empirically a multiple-cluster, multivariate theory of philanthropy developed by the first author (Schervish and Havens, 1996). We based this analysis on the 1992 national Survey of Giving and Volunteering (SGV) conducted by the Gallup Organization for the Independent Sector. In the present paper, we replicate our empirical analysis using two newer data sets: the 1996 national General Social Survey (GSS) conducted by the National Opinion Research Center and the 1994-95 national Harvard Survey of Health and Life Quality (HSHLQ) conducted by DataStat for the MacArthur Foundation. These additional surveys allow us to investigate whether we can obtain broad support for our initial findings, despite the differences in focus and the specific questions asked, among all the surveys.

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"Taking Giving Seriously."
Paul G. Schervish with essays by four philanthropists (Obie Benz, Peggy Dulany, Thomas B. Murphy, and Stanley Salett). Indianapolis: Indiana University Center on Philanthropy, 1993. In analytical essays and personal narratives about having and sharing wealth, the contributors reveal clearly the two sides of philanthropy--its obligations and opportunities. Useful as a guide for active or potential philanthropists, as well as for scholars and fundraisers, this publication gives valuable insight into the motivation of the wealthy to give and the moral and philosophical elements of giving.
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"Towards a General Theory of the Philanthropic Activities of the Wealthy."
Paul G. Schervish, Andrew Herman, and Lynn Rhenisch. Annual Spring Research Forum of the Independent Sector, New York, NY, Mar. 13-14, 1986.
The most important theoretical point to be made about the distinctive contribution of wealth to an understanding of philanthropy is that wealth affords individuals the means for moving from being simply consumers of the social agenda to being producers of it. In economic terms, philanthropy helps translate those needs and preferences into effective demand by providing the means by which individuals or organizations can engage in concerted efforts to achieve their goals.

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