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"The High Giving Poor: Who are the Low Income People Who Make High Contributions?"
Anthony J. Savoie and John J. Havens. Presented at the 1998 annual meeting of the Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Seattle, Nov. 5-7, 1998. Based on empirical analysis, this paper describes the group of relatively low income individuals and families who contribute large proportions of their income to charitable causes, a group we call "the high giving poor." The paper focuses primarily on families and individuals with incomes of $20,000 or less who contribute at least 5 percent of their income to charitable organizations as reported in the Survey of Consumer Finances for 1989, 1992, and 1995.
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"How do People Leave Bequests: Family or Philanthropic Organizations?."

Paul G. Schervish and John J. Havens. In Alicia Munnell and Annika Sunden, (eds.), Death and Dollars, forthcoming Brookings Press.
This paper presents an alternative paradigm to economic models of transfers, one which we have developed from our extensive ethnographic and survey research on charitable giving and which we call the identification theory. The identification theory suggests that it is self-identification with others and with the needs of others, (rather than selflessness) that motivates transfers to individuals and to philanthropic organizations and that leads givers to derive satisfaction from fulfilling those needs. The allocation of transfers to family and philanthropy, we have found, is not so much a division between individuals and philanthropic organizations, as it is an allocation of transfers across an array of perceived needs, which combines both the needs of individuals, including family and friends, and needs served by philanthropic organizations. Moreover, the allocation is less a single conscious decision than a process imbedded in daily life experiences.

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"Hyperagency and High-Tech Donors: A New Theory of the New Philanthropists."

Paul G. Schervish. Presented at the annual ARNOVA conference November, 2003. This paper develops the theoretical concept of hyperagency and applies it to interpret the philanthropy of high-tech donors in particular, and wealthy donors in general.

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