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Health Risks Associated with Alcohol and Other Drug Use

adapted from u.s. department of justice-publication drugs of abuse (website september 2009)

Dependence  
Drugs CSA Schedules Trade or Other Names Medical Uses Physical Psycho-logical Tolerance Duration (Hours) Usual Method Possible Effects Effects of Overdose Withdrawal Syndrome
Narcotics                      
Heroin Substance I Diamorphine, Horse, Smack, Black tar, Chiva, Negra (black tar) None in U.S., Analgesic, Antitussive High High Yes 3-4 Injected, snorted, smoked Euphoria, drowsiness, respiratory depression, constricted pupils, nausea Slow and shallow breathing, clammy skin, convulsions, coma, possible death Watery eyes, runny nose, yawning, loss of appetite, irritability, tremors, panic, cramps, nausea, chills and sweating
Morphine Substance II MS-Contin, Roxanol, Oramorph SR, MSIR Analgesic High High Yes 3-12 Oral, injected
Hydrocodone Substance II, Product III, V Hydrocodone w/ Acetaminophen, Vicodin, Vicoprofen, Tussionex, Lortab Analgesic, Antitussive High High Yes 3-6 Oral
Hydro-morphone Substance II Dilaudid Analgesic High High Yes 3-4 Oral, injected
Oxycodone Substance II Roxicet, Oxycodone w/ Acetaminophen, OxyContin, Endocet, Percocet, Percodan Analgesic High High Yes 3-12 Oral
Codeine Substance II, Products III, V Acetaminophen, Guaifenesin or Promethazine w/Codeine, Fiorinal, Fioricet or Tylenol w/Codeine Analgesic, Antitussive Moderate Moderate Yes 3-4 Oral, injected
Other Narcotics Substance II, III, IV Fentanyl, Demerol, Methadone, Darvon, Stadol, Talwin, Paregoric, Buprenex Analgesic, Antidiarrheal, Antitussive High-Low High-Low Yes Variable Oral, injected, snorted, smoked
Depressants                      
gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid Substance I, Product III GHB, Liquid Ecstasy, Liquid X, Sodium Oxybate, Xyrem® None in U.S., Anesthetic Moderate Moderate Yes 3-6 Oral Slurred speech, disorientation, drunken behavior without odor of alcohol, impaired memory of events, interacts with alcohol Shallow respiration, clammy skin, dilated pupils, weak and rapid pulse, coma, possible death Anxiety, insomnia, tremors, delirium, convulsions, possible death
Benzodiazepines Substance IV Valium, Xanax, Halcion, Ativan, Restoril, Rohypnol (Roofies, R-2), Klonopin Antianxiety, Sedative, Anti-convulsant, Hypnotic, Muscle Relaxant Moderate Moderate Yes 1-8 Oral, injected
Other Depressants Substance I, II, III, IV Ambien, Sonata, Meprobamate, Chloral Hydrate, Barbiturates, Methaqualone (Quaalude) Antianxiety, Sedative, Hypnotic Moderate Moderate Yes 2-6 Oral
Stimulants                      
Cocaine Substance II Coke, Flake, Snow, Crack, Coca, Blanca, Perico, Nieve, Soda Local anesthetic Possible High Yes 1-2 Snorted, smoked, injected Increased alertness, excitation, euphoria, increased pulse rate & blood pressure, insomnia, loss of appetite Agitation, increased body temperature, hallucinations, convulsions, possible death Apathy, long periods of sleep, irritability, depression, disorientation
Amphetamine/
Meth-amphetamine
Substance II Crank, Ice, Cristal, Krystal Meth, Speed, Adderall, Dexedrine, Desoxyn Attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder, narcolepsy, weight control Possible High Yes 2-4 Oral, injected, smoked
Methylphenidate Substance II Ritalin (Illy's), Concerta, Focalin, Metadate Attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder Possible High Yes 2-4 Oral, injected, snorted, smoked
Other Stimulants Substance III, IV Adipex P, Ionamin, Prelu-2, Didrex, Provigil Vaso-constriction Possible Moderate Yes 2-4 Oral
Hallucinogens                      
MDMA and Analogs Substance I (Ecstasy, XTC, Adam), MDA (Love Drug), MDEA (Eve), MBDB None None Moderate Yes 4-6 Oral, snorted, smoked  Heightened senses, teeth grinding and dehydration Increased body temperature, electrolyte imbalance, cardiac arrest Muscle aches, drowsiness, depression, acne
LSD Substance I  Acid, Microdot, Sunshine, Boomers None None  Unknown Yes 8-12 Oral Illusions and hallucinations, altered perception of time and distance (LSD) Longer, more intense "trip" episodes  None
Phencyclidine and Analogs Substance I, II, III PCP, Angel Dust, Hog, Loveboat, Ketamine (Special K), PCE, PCPy, TCP Anesthetic (Ketamine) Possible High Yes 1-12 Smoked, oral, injected, snorted Unable to direct movement, feel pain, or remember Drug seeking behavior
*Not regulated
Other Hallucinogens Substance I Psilocybe mushrooms, Mescaline, Peyote Cactus, Ayahausca, DMT, Dextro-methorphan* (DXM) None None None Possible 4-8 Oral
Cannabis                      
Marijuana Substance I Pot, Grass, Sinsemilla, Blunts, Mota, Yerba, Grifa None Unknown Moderate Yes 2-4 Smoked, oral Euphoria, relaxed inhibitions, increased appetite, disorientation Fatigue, paranoia, possible psychosis Occasional reports of insomnia, hyperactivity, decreased appetite
Tetrahydro-cannabinol Substance I, Product III THC, Marinol Antinauseant, Appetite stimulant Yes Moderate Yes 2-4 Smoked, oral
Hashish and Hashish Oil Substance I Hash, Hash oil None Unknown Moderate Yes 2-4 Smoked, oral
Anabolic Steroids                      
Testosterone Substance III Depo Testosterone, Sustanon, Sten, Cypt Hypogonadism Unknown Unknown Unknown 14-28 days Injected Virilization, edema, testicular atrophy, gyneco-mastia, acne, aggressive behavior Unknown Possible depression
Other Anabolic Steroids Substance III Parabolan, Winstrol, Equipose, Anadrol, Dianabol, Primabolin-Depo, D-Ball Anemia, Breast cancer Unknown Yes Unknown Variable Oral, injected
Inhalants                      
Amyl and Butyl Nitrite   Pearls, Poppers, Rush, Locker Room Angina (Amyl) Unknown Unknown No 1 Inhaled Flushing, hypotension, headache Methemo-globinemia Agitation
Nitrous Oxide   Laughing gas, balloons, Whippets Anesthetic Unknown Low No 0.5 Inhaled Impaired memory, slurred speech, drunken behavior, slow onset vitamin deficiency, organ damage Vomiting, respiratory depression, loss of consciousness, possible death Trembling, anxiety, insomnia, vitamin deficiency, confusion, hallucinations, convulsions
Other Inhalants   Adhesives, spray paint, hair spray, dry cleaning fluid, spot remover, lighter fluid None Unknown High No 0.5-2 Inhaled
Alcohol   Beer, wine, liquor None High High Yes 1-3 Oral


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