Parents

parents

Literacy Development in Elementary School Second‐Language Learners. Topics in language disorders, 26(4), 351-364. August, D., Snow, C., Carlo, M., Proctor, C. P., de San Francisco, A. R., Duursma, E., & Szuber, A. (2006).

Summary of Key Findings

  • Becoming or staying proficient in English does not require parental use of English in the home. -Spanish, not English, is the at-risk language for children of Hispanic heritage living in the United States.
  • Bilingual children need to develop a certain literacy level in both languages so as to benefit from the positive cognitive influences of bilingualism.
  • Children's growth in both English and Spanish receptive vocabulary and oral comprehension predicted their English and Spanish reading abilities at the end of first grade within languages.
  • English receptive language predicting Spanish reading comprehension and growth in Spanish receptive language predicting English reading comprehension.

 

Linguistic interdependence and the educational development of bilingual children. Review of educational research, 49(2), 222-251. Cummins, J. (1979).

Summary of Key Findings

  • The “developmental interdependence” hypothesis proposes that the development of competence in a second language (L2) is influenced by linguistic skills in the first language (L1).
  • The “threshold” hypothesis proposes that there may be threshold levels of linguistic competence which a bilingual child must attain both in order to avoid cognitive disadvantages and allow the potentially beneficial aspects of bilingualism to influence his cognitive and academic functioning.
  • Only when bilinguals have fully developed L1 proficiency can they benefit from bilingualism cognitively and academically.
  • Many evaluations of bilingual education programs have produced uninterpretable data because they have failed to incorporate developmental interdependence hypothesis into their research designs.

 

Associations between preschool language and first grade reading outcomes in bilingual children. Journal of Communication Disorders, 44(4), 444-458. Davison, M. D., Hammer, C., & Lawrence, F. R. (2011).

Summary of Key Findings

  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among bilingual children's receptive language development and reading outcomes in first grade.
  • Children's growth in both English and Spanish receptive vocabulary and oral comprehension predicted their English and Spanish reading abilities at the end of first grade within languages.
  • Associations were also observed between languages with growth in English receptive language predicting Spanish reading comprehension and growth in Spanish receptive language predicting English reading comprehension.

 

Is there a cognate advantage for typically developing Spanish-speaking English-language learners?. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 43(2), 191-204. Kelley, A., & Kohnert, K. (2012).

Summary of Key Findings

  • Cognate advantage between Spanish and English will benefit spoken and written vocabulary learning in typically developing Spanish-speaking English-language learners (ELLs).